White Papers

As part of our participation and leadership on a number of committees, aeSolutions’ principals and employees are committed to sharing our knowledge and experience with our customers and colleagues through technical papers. 

Impacts of Process Safety Time on Layer of Protection Analysis
The ability of an Independent Protection Layer (IPL) to achieve a given level of risk reduction is dependent upon its fulfillment of several core attributes. A key provision for any IPL to be considered effective and functionally adequate is its capability to respond to a process demand quickly enough to stop the propagation of the hazard scenario it was designed to prevent. While this seems obvious and reasonable, the estimation of Process Safety Time and the specification of IPL Response Times is more complex, and often deferred or overlooked altogether. What is Process Safety Time? How is it determined? When? And by whom? This paper examines the relationship between Process Safety Time and IPL Response Times, essential variables for the justification of IPL effectiveness, and their impacts on the success of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA).

Is Cost Effective Compliance with the IEC61511 Safety Lifecycle Sustainable?
While the concept of execute, monitor and sustain seems straightforward, for a variety of reasons, most companies who have committed to the IEC61511 journey, are solely focused on the execution of safety lifecycle documentation. This myopic approach will result in their failure to realize the full benefits to their organization of a cost effective risk management program. In addition, without development of a holistic multi-year plan for safety lifecycle compliance, end user companies can expect to incur significant regret costs and schedule delays as they attempt to change the safety culture of their organization around adoption of IEC61511. In this paper, a proven roadmap for efficient and cost effective safety lifecycle compliance and risk management will be defined, which emphasizes the use of an evergreen work process to support the concepts of execute, monitor and sustain.

Validating Process Safety Assumptions Using Operations Data
As facilities are assessing risk, making recommendations for gap closure, and designing safety instrumented functions (SIFs), assumptions are made to facilitate calculations in the design phase of protection layers used to reduce the likelihood of hazards occurring. The purpose of this white paper is to identify key assumptions and replace the assumptions with real-world operations data to prove that the risk may be greater than perceptions based on design.

Stopping the Swirl: Facilitation Tools that Improve PHA Results and Efficiency
Effective Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) facilitators combine soft skills with technical knowledge to guide PHA teams through a thorough identification and analysis of process hazards. Facilitators should consider the following examples of tools successfully used to stop the swirl by providing the PHA team with the right information at the right time.

Who and What Equals How I’m Closing My Gaps
Following a layer of protection analysis (LOPA), numerous recommendations and proposals are identified to close gaps associated with process safety performance. This paper explores a methodology created to allocate the targeted risk reduction factor (RRF) between different types of work and stakeholders.

Options for Developing a Compliant PLC-based Burner Management System (BMS)
A consideration of the three approaches to developing a compliant PLC-based Burner Management System including the design and implementation complexities, advantages, and disadvantages of each approach.

A Leader's Tactical Approach to Influence Changes in Process Safety Culture
Once an organization recognizes that a process safety culture change is needed, the question then becomes, how do we engage top level leadership so that they influence culture? And, what tactical activities and behaviors can leaders promote and participate in that will have a notable outcome? Key topics covered by the author include visible leadership, effective communications, risk based decision making, self-assessments, lesson learning, key performance indicators, and active monitoring and feedback.

IPL/CMS - Integrity Management of Non-SIS Independent Protection Layers After the LOPA
A discussion of the identification, selection, implementation and management of Non-SIF IPLs through the process lifecycle.

Impacts of Demand Rates on SIF/SIS Design and Mechanical Integrity
An examination of the differences between Low Demand, High Demand, and Continuous Mode SIFs, and provides examples and practical guidance for SIL Determination, conceptual design, SIL Verification, and long-term Mechanical Integrity considerations for each.

aeSolutions' Safety System Lifecycle Management Solution
ARC Advisory Group provides their view on aeShield Safety Lifecyle Management Solution and how it addresses today's key industry challenges.

Identifying Facility Siting Raw Risk and the Risk Reduction Decision Process
One of the outcomes of a facility siting study is the presentation of information to the facility site leadership team so they can recognize all of the hazards that can impact buildings intended for occupancy. It is this hazard recognition and risk reduction process that will be discussed in this paper. The authors will present a methodology for completing a facility siting assessment that starts with identifying a MCE, followed by breaking the MCE into additional credible events, and identifying likelihood and additional safeguards needed to manage the risk.

Roll Out and Maintenance Integration of SIS Proof Test and Inspection
A review of the technical and management challenges associated with implementing a standard SIS proof testing philosophy and documentation strategy across a multi-facility upstream oil and gas business unit.

Effective Management of PSM Data in Implementing the ANSI/ISA-84.00.01 Safety Lifecycle
An examination of the efficiencies that can be gained by effective PSI and MI data management and coordination.

A Database Approach to the Safety Lifecycle
Using a systematic database approach to design, develop, and test a Safety Instrumented System (SIS) using methodologies in compliance with ANSI/ISA S84.01 requirements can result in improved quality of design deliverables and system configuration while reducing implementation effort. 

Industry Update: Safety Instrumented Fire & Gas Systems (SI-FGS)
An exploration of marketplace and industry trends surrounding Fire & Gas Detection Systems and their relationship to Safety Instrumented Systems. Includes results of an informal survey of OEMs, engineering firms, and end users to ascertain driving factors in the acceptance and use of of SI-FGS systems.

Industry Update: Safety Instrumented Burner Management Systems (SI-BMS)
An exploration of marketplace and industry trends surrounding Burner Management Systems and their relationship to Safety Instrumented Systems. Includes results of an informal survey of OEMs, engineering firms, and end users to ascertain driving factors in the acceptance and use of SI-BMS systems.

Case Study: Safety Instrumented Burner Management System (SI-BMS)
A discussion of the application of the Safety Lifecycle as defined by ANSI / ISA 84.00.01-2004 (IEC 61511 mod) to single-burner multiple fuel boilers. Topics include challenges encountered and project cost savings realized.

What is the Safety Integrity Level of My Existing Burner Management System?
A discussion of the issues, decisions, and challenges encountered when applying the concepts of the Safety Lifecycle per ANSI/ISA 84.01, IEC 61508 and / or IEC 61511 to the design of an existing BMS for a single-burner natural-gas-fired installation. Also discusses identification of typical BMS SIFs and subsequent SIL determination. 

Burner Management System Safety Integrity Level Selection
A discussion of utilizing quantitative methods to select the appropriate Safety Integrity Level associated with Burner Management Systems. Focuses on identifying the required amount of risk reduction and how that can impact efficiency and costs. 

Identifying Required Safety Instrumented Functions for Life Safety
Systems in the High-Tech and Semiconductor Manufacturing Industries A discussion of issues and challenges encountered when attempting to apply Safety Lifecycle concepts per ANSI / ISA S84.01 to the design of a Life Safety System at a state-of-the-art fiberoptic manufacturing facility. Focus on industry-specific issues associated with the use of mitigation versus prevention techniques (typically encountered in the process industry).

Safety Instrumented Burner Management Systems – Requirements for the Paper Industry
A discussion of how to ensure equipment such as dryers, kilns, thermal oxidizers, power boilers and black liquor recovery boilers conform to ANSI/ISA 84, IEC 61508, IEC 61511, NFPA 85, NFPA 86 and BLRBAC guidelines.